Journal of Cytology
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Evaluation of the cytonucleomorphometric parameters for cases diagnosed as squamous cell abnormality on conventional cervico-vaginal pap smears

1 Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, AIIMS Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Community and Family Medicine, AIIMS Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ujjawal Khurana,
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, AIIMS Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh - 462 024
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joc.joc_73_22

Background and Aim: The natural history of cervical cancer is unique that it is preceded by a precancerous condition for a long time. Morphometry as a tool can be used in early and accurate diagnosis of these precancerous and cancerous lesions. The present study aims at assessing the utility of cellular and nuclear morphometry in differentiating squamous cell abnormality from benign conditions and also differentiating the categories of squamous cell abnormalities. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight diagnosed cases of squamous epithelial cell abnormality, that is, 10 cases each of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance ( ASC-US), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and eight cases of ASC-H (ASC cannot exclude HSIL), were made the sample population and compared with a control population of 10 cases of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM). Parameters like nuclear area (NA), nuclear perimeter (NP), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear compactness (NC), cellular area (CA), cellular diameter (CD), cellular perimeter (CP), and nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio were used. Results: There was a significant difference in the six groups of squamous cell abnormality based on NA, NP, ND, CA, CP, and CD (P < 0.05) using one-way analysis of variance. Nuclear morphometry parameters like NA, NP, and ND were found to be the maximum for HSIL, followed by LSIL, ASC-H, ASC-US, SCC, and NILM groups in decreasing order. The mean CA, CP, and CD were found to be the maximum for NILM, followed by LSIL, ASC-US, HSIL, ASC-H, and SCC in decreasing order. On post hoc analysis, the lesions can be divided into three groups: NILM/normal; ASC-US and LSIL; and ASC-H, HSIL, and SCC, based on N/C ratio. Conclusion: In cervical lesions, holistic parameter of cytonucleomorphometry should be taken rather than taking nuclear morphometry only. N/C ratio is a highly statistically significant parameter that can differentiate between low-grade lesions and high-grade lesions.

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