Journal of Cytology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2022
Volume 39 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-52

Online since Thursday, February 17, 2022

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A comparative study of squash smear cytology diagnosis and radiological diagnosis with histopathology in central nervous system lesions p. 1
BN Kumarguru, G Santhipriya, S Kranthi Kumar, R Ramesh Kumar, AS Ramaswamy, P Janakiraman
Background: Space occupying lesions (SOLs) of central nervous system (CNS) constitutes important cause of neurological morbidity and mortality. Squash cytology is technically a simple and rapid intraoperative diagnostic tool. Radiology is supportive of histopathological diagnosis. Objectives: To enumerate the histopathological patterns of various central nervous system (CNS) lesions, to correlate cytopathological diagnosis with histopathological diagnosis, and to correlate radiological diagnosis with histopathological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study of CNS lesion cases from January 2015 to August 2018. Cytological-histopathological concordance and radiological-histopathological concordance were calculated. Chi-square test was the statistical tool used for statistical analysis. Results: Histopathological diagnosis of 50 cases included neoplastic lesions (42 cases [84%]) and non-neoplastic lesions (8 cases [16%]). Correct diagnosis was achieved by squash cytology in 36 cases (72%) and radiological diagnosis in 25 cases (50%) by complete concordance. However, diagnostic accuracy of squash and radiology improved considerably by 90% and 76%, respectively, after applying partial concordance criteria. For the detection of neoplastic lesions, squash cytology had 98% and radiology had 80% diagnostic efficacy. Conclusion: Preoperative radiological investigation and intraoperative squash smear cytology are complementary to each other. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the management of patients.
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USG guided fine needle aspiration cytology along with immunocytochemistry to diagnose primary malignant mixed mullerian tumors: A three-year study from a tertiary care center p. 9
Radhika Agarwal, Meeta Singh, Sneha Goswami, Shramana Mandal, Devender Verma, Nita Khurana, Shyama Jain, Nidhi Verma
Aims and Objectives: To study the diagnostic utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and immunocytochemistry in diagnosing primary malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMT). Materials and Methods: A 3-year retrospective study carried out in a tertiary care hospital, which included all the gynecological patients who underwent USG-guided FNAC of their abdominopelvic masses. Observations and Results: Out of the 324 total cases, 05 (1.5%) were reported as primary malignant mixed Mullerian tumors. Out of these 05 cases, 03 were ovarian, 01 was uterine, and 01 involved both uterus and one-sided adnexa. The FNA smears from the masses revealed cytomorphological features of a biphasic neoplasm with elongated pleomorphic spindle cells and dispersed, focal attempted acinar pattern, thus indicating the possibility of MMMT. Immunocytochemistry was further carried out which showed both vimentin and cytokeratin positivity. The diagnosis was confirmed on subsequent biopsy and immunohistochemistry (without any histopathological-cytological discrepancy). Conclusion: Though the literature is replete in establishing a histo-pathological diagnosis of MMMT, the diagnosis on USG-guided FNAC has been rarely described. Emphasis should be made on the careful examination of small sarcomatous elements in smears. Utilization of cell block and immunocytochemistry with histopathological correlation should be done to avoid misdiagnosis.
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Evaluation of hTERT gene expression and chromosome 7 copy number variation in anal squamous intra-epithelial lesions: A pilot study p. 14
Tanvi Arora, Neelam Wadhwa, Divya Aggarwal, Deepika Pandhi, Preeti Diwaker, Vinod K Arora
Background: Akin to cervical squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN), anal squamous intra-epithelial lesion (a-SIL) is attributed to persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus infection. Amplification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene and aneuploidy are known to correlate with CIN evolution. It is plausible that the underlying genetic events in a-SIL are similar. We conducted this cross-sectional analytical study with the objective of determining expression of hTERT gene expression and chromosome 7, as marker of cell ploidy in a-SIL. Methods: Conventional anal cytology was performed in 86 adult consenting subjects with history of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) and 4 controls without history of RAI. Cases with a-SIL and controls were subjected to fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate hTERT gene and chromosome 7 expression, as marker of cell ploidy. Results were expressed as number of abnormal nuclei (≥3 respective signals), maximum degree of amplification, mean signals/nucleus and proportion of cases showing abnormal nuclei. Results: Twenty cases showed a-SIL; with 15 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 3 low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (LSIL) and 2 cases of high-risk cytology. Expression of both hTERT gene and chromosome 7 increased from controls to ASCUS to LSIL with concomitant increase in proportion of cases having abnormal hTERT gene and chromosome 7 expression. Conclusions: Positive association of hTERT gene with a-SIL suggests its possible role in evolution of anal squamous abnormalities. Increase in chromosome 7 also correlated positively with a-SIL. These findings corroborate the similarities between squamous carcinogenesis in CIN and a-SIL.
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Intraoperative sentinel lymph node imprint cytology diagnosis in breast cancer patients by general surgical pathologists: A single-institution experience of 4327 cases p. 20
Yi-Chin Chang, Chi-Yuan Tzen
Context: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for breast cancer (BC) patient staging. The axillary node status can be evaluated by frozen section (FS) or imprint cytology (IC). Despite the major disadvantages of tissue loss and freezing artifact in FS, many pathologists consider SLN IC a more difficult task requiring special expertise and prefer FS to IC. Aims: To conduct a large cohort study to evaluate the results of intraoperative SLN IC, compare them with those of FS and permanent section (PS), and determine the best method for general pathologists. Settings and Design: A very large cohort study with many pathologists engaged was designed and the diagnostic results were compared. Materials and Methods: With 12 pathologists engaged, we conducted the largest patient cohort study of SLN IC to date, including 4,327 consecutive BC patients undergoing SLN biopsy during the past 15 years. The touch imprints were stained using three different methods and evaluated. The PS was used as the gold standard for evaluation. Statistical Analysis: The false positivity, false negativity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the IC and FS for each pathologist were evaluated and compared. Results: Our results showed an overall sensitivity of 82.7%, specificity of 99.3%, and an accuracy rate of 95.9% for SLN IC, which were comparable to those of FS. The accuracy rate did not correlate with the length of working experience and the staining method. Conclusions: Intraoperative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained IC preparation was found to be the best SLN examination method for general pathologists.
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Evaluation of use of RPMI medium to preserve cell morphology for pleural/peritoneal fluid cytology p. 26
Usha Rani, Meeta Singh, Armaan Saith, Shayama L Jain, Anurag Aggarwal, Sunita Aggarwal
Introduction: Cytologic evaluation is the best way to detect the presence of malignancy in body cavity fluids. Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium or RPMI 1640 is used in cell culture, tissue culture, and also to improve the cellularity and morphology of CSF cytology specimens. Objectives: To determine whether RPMI medium can be used to preserve cell morphology in pleural/peritoneal effusion samples. Method and Material: The study was conducted on 30 pleural/peritoneal fluid samples received routinely during 2 months for diagnostic purposes in our department. The samples were divided into four parts. One-fourth of the sample was directly refrigerated and the other fourth was at room temperature. In the other two parts, an equal volume of RPMI media was added, and one was kept at room temperature and the other refrigerated. These cytospin-prepared Giemsa-stained smears were examined for cell morphology, cellularity, and occurrence of bacterial colonies at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 1 week, respectively. Result: Refrigerated RPMI medium is the best preservative for pleural/peritoneal samples; however, samples with RPMI at room temperature were equivalent/even worse than the simple refrigerated sample.
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How accurately FNAC reflects the breast papillary lesions? p. 30
Gülistan Gümrükçü, Meryem Dogan, Nilüfer Gürsan, Baris Boylu, Erhan Ekren, Fügen Vardar Aker
Context: Diagnosis of papillary lesions of the breast by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is problematic. For this reason, it is situated in the indeterminate zone in classification systems. Aims: To ascertain the accuracy of cytological diagnosis of papillary lesions in distinguishing papillary lesions from non-papillary lesions and to determine whether papillomas can be reliably distinguished from malignant papillary lesions by FNAC. Material and Methods: A total of 346 cases with the diagnoses of breast papillary lesions were selected among 5112 breast FNAC procedures performed in our center. One hundred and thirty-nine cases with excised lesions were included in this study, and their corresponding histology was reviewed. Results: Papillary lesion diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 103 (74.1%) of 139 patients. Cytology and histopathology results were not found to be compatible in 35 (25.2%) cases. The diagnostic accuracy of distinguishing papillary breast lesions as malignant or benign was assessed statistically. According to the cytology–histology comparison, one case was evaluated as false negative (FN) and twelve cases as false positive (FP). Overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNAC in distinguishing papillary lesions as benign or malignant were calculated as 87%, 97%, 83%, 72%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy of papillary breast lesions classified by FNAC might be improved by careful evaluation together with cytological, radiological, and clinical findings (triple test). Cell block may allow more accurate evaluation of the papillary lesion and can be applied to immunohistochemical examination. It may also facilitate the differentiation of benign/malignant papillary lesions.
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Analytical and post analytical phase of an ISO 15189:2012 Certified cytopathology laboratory-a five year institutional experience p. 37
Smita Chandra, Anuradha Kusum, Dushyant Singh Gaur, Harish Chandra
Objective: Analytical and post analytical phase are integral part of total quality management system and include steps from submission of slides till reports are dispatched. The present study was conducted to analyze the analytical and post analytical phase of the ISO15189:2012 certified cytopathology laboratory. It was also intended to study the various errors which were encountered and steps taken to reduce these discrepancies. Methods: The study included all documents of quality program from 1 November 2014 till 31 Oct 2019 in medical institute situated in north Himalayan region of India. All the data was recorded and analyzed for analytical and post analytical phase. Results: The number of samples received in cytopathology lab was 21,566 with total quality errors of 5.19%. Out of these pre-analytical errors were 55%, analytical 10.5% and post analytical errors constituted 34.4%. The maximum errors detected were due to typographical errors followed by delayed turnaround time. Cyto-histopathological discordance was 10.5% in non-gynecological cases and 2.2% in gynecological cases. Conclusion: Analytical and post analytical phase analysis is essential to minimize the errors and improve the quality of cytopathology lab. Cyto-histopathological correlation is valuable for continuous data tracking in the cytopathology with analytical errors analysis. Maintenance of external, internal quality program, turnaround time with documentation, continuous training and communication with clinician is fundamental for quality improvement in any cytopathology lab. Acknowledgement of nonconformance with root cause analysis and sincere efforts to minimize them is the basic key for successful quality management.
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Cytomorphological categorization of thyroid lesions according to the bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology and correlation with their histological outcome: An indian oncology centre experience p. 44
Meenakshi Kamboj, Anurag Mehta, Sunil Pasricha, Gurudutt Gupta, Anila Sharma, Garima Durga
Objective: The objective of this study was to report the experience of an Indian premiere tertiary care oncology center in reporting fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions according to the Bethesda system of reporting thyroid cytopathology (TBSRTC) given by National Cancer Institute (NCI). These were then correlated with their histopathological outcome, analyzing the level of specificity and sensitivity of the procedure. Material and Methods: Aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions, presented during a 5.5-year duration, was reported retrospectively and prospectively, according TBSRTC, and correlated with their histopathologic diagnosis. Results: A total of 431 patients were evaluated comprising 289 females and 142 males, with a median age of 52 years. Among the cytological categories 80 (18.6%) were non-diagnostic (ND), 131 (30.2%) benign, 45 (10.4%) follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), 27 (6.3%) follicular neoplasm, 33 (7.9%) suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 115 (26.7%) malignant. Histopathology reports were available in 142 of these cases. Final malignant diagnosis was reported in 11 of 14 ND (78.6%), 5 of 18 benign cases (27.7%); 9 of 17 FLUS (52.9%), 7 of 13 FLUS (53.89%), 19 of 20 SM (95%), and 58 of 60 malignant cases (96.7%). The procedure had sensitivity of 94.4%, specificity of 61.9%, positive predictive value of 90.3% and negative predictive value of 72.22%. Conclusion: TBSRTC provides uniform categorization of thyroid cytology, which also helps in further management. This valid system has helped to streamline the reporting terminologies as well as the clinical management.
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Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the parotid region: A cytopathological diagnosis p. 51
Pranjal Kalita, Biswajit Dey, Bifica Sofia Lyngdoh, Yookarin Khonglah, Devina Laishram
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