Journal of Cytology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 40 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-50

Online since Tuesday, March 21, 2023

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Analysis of intraoperative squash cytology of central nervous system lesions and its correlation with immunohistopathology and radiology p. 1
Shilpa Accamma Philip, Earla Lakshmi Bai, G J Vani Padmaja, Swarajya Kumari
Context: Central nervous system lesions are diverse and remain one of the most challenging domains for neuropathologists. Intraoperative cytological diagnosis is now a universally accepted technique in diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Aims: 1) To analyze and compare cytomorphological features of CNS lesions in intraoperative squash smears with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and preoperative radiological diagnosis and 2) to determine the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of intraoperative squash cytology. Settings and Design: Prospective study conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre over a period of two years. Methods and Material: All biopsy materials which underwent squash cytology and histopathological examination were collected, evaluated, classified, and graded according to WHO classification of CNS Tumors, 2016. The squash cytosmear diagnosis was compared with histopathological features and radiological diagnosis. Discordances were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The cases were categorized into true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated from 2*2 table. Results: A total of 190 cases were included in the study. A total of 182 cases (95.70%) were neoplastic of which 87.36% were primary CNS neoplasms. Diagnostic accuracy in non-neoplastic lesions was 88.8%. Most common neoplastic lesions were glial tumors (35.7%), meningioma (17.3%), tumors of cranial and spinal nerves (12%), and metastatic lesions (12%). Diagnostic accuracy of squash cytology was higher in glial tumors (93.8%), meningioma (96.7%), and metastatic lesions (95.45%). Diagnostic accuracy of radiological modalities was 85.78%. Conclusions: A good familiarity with cytomorphological features of CNS lesions, clinical details, radiological findings, and intraoperative impression of neurosurgeon enables the pathologist to improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce errors.
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Evaluation of the cytonucleomorphometric parameters for cases diagnosed as squamous cell abnormality on conventional cervico-vaginal pap smears p. 5
Satyam Mishra, Ujjawal Khurana, Neelkamal Kapoor, Ankur Joshi, Deepti Joshi
Background and Aim: The natural history of cervical cancer is unique that it is preceded by a precancerous condition for a long time. Morphometry as a tool can be used in early and accurate diagnosis of these precancerous and cancerous lesions. The present study aims at assessing the utility of cellular and nuclear morphometry in differentiating squamous cell abnormality from benign conditions and also differentiating the categories of squamous cell abnormalities. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight diagnosed cases of squamous epithelial cell abnormality, that is, 10 cases each of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance ( ASC-US), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and eight cases of ASC-H (ASC cannot exclude HSIL), were made the sample population and compared with a control population of 10 cases of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM). Parameters like nuclear area (NA), nuclear perimeter (NP), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear compactness (NC), cellular area (CA), cellular diameter (CD), cellular perimeter (CP), and nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio were used. Results: There was a significant difference in the six groups of squamous cell abnormality based on NA, NP, ND, CA, CP, and CD (P < 0.05) using one-way analysis of variance. Nuclear morphometry parameters like NA, NP, and ND were found to be the maximum for HSIL, followed by LSIL, ASC-H, ASC-US, SCC, and NILM groups in decreasing order. The mean CA, CP, and CD were found to be the maximum for NILM, followed by LSIL, ASC-US, HSIL, ASC-H, and SCC in decreasing order. On post hoc analysis, the lesions can be divided into three groups: NILM/normal; ASC-US and LSIL; and ASC-H, HSIL, and SCC, based on N/C ratio. Conclusion: In cervical lesions, holistic parameter of cytonucleomorphometry should be taken rather than taking nuclear morphometry only. N/C ratio is a highly statistically significant parameter that can differentiate between low-grade lesions and high-grade lesions.
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Role of guided FNA in gallbladder cancer: A retrospective 3-year study Highly accessed article p. 12
Surbhi Goyal, Garima Prasad, Dimple Chaudhary, Puja Sakhuja, Siddhartha Srivastava, Anil K Aggarwal
Background: A majority of the patients with gall bladder cancer (GBCa) present at an advanced stage and have poor survival. The aim is to retrospectively study the role of guided FNA in the diagnosis of GBCa in a superspecialty institute and to describe the cytomorphologic spectrum of gall bladder (GB) lesions in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: All suspected cases of GBCa who underwent guided FNA from the primary GB mass or metastatic liver space-occupying lesion from 2017 to 2019 were included. The aspirate smears were retrieved and analyzed for cytomorphological features independently by two cytopathologists. The neoplastic lesions were classified according to the WHO 2019 classification. Results: Of 489 cases, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was diagnostic in 463 cases (94.6%), of which 417 (90.1%) were positive for malignancy, 35 (7.5%) were inflammatory, and 11 (2.4%) were inconclusive for malignancy. Adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) was the most common type seen in 330 cases (79.1%) and 87 (20.9%) were unusual variants. These included papillary adenocarcinoma (22, 5.2%), mucinous adenocarcinoma (12, 2.8%), signet ring carcinoma (2,0.4%), adenosquamous carcinoma (8, 1.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (10, 2.4%), neuroendocrine neoplasms (7, 1.7%), undifferentiated carcinoma (24, 5.7%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2,0.4%), respectively. Immunohistochemistry on the cell block confirmed the diagnosis wherever possible. Histopathology was discordant in 5 out of 33 cases. Conclusion: Guided FNAC is a sensitive investigation that plays a crucial role in confirming the diagnosis and deciding the further treatment options in advanced-stage GBCa patients. The uncommon variants of GBCa can be reliably categorized on cytology.
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Microcystic meningioma – A diagnostic dilemma during intraoperative squash smear study p. 19
Sukhpreet Kaur, Rahul Karode, Hanni V Gulwani
Background: Meningiomas are generally slow-growing, benign, and non-infiltrating in nature. They are usually easy to diagnose cytologically if they are of the meningothelial type; however, they may cause diagnostic challenges when they manifest as unusual morphological variants, like the microcystic type. Because of the rarity of microcystic meningioma (MM), information on its cytological features is rarely available in the literature. Objectives: The goal of this study is to review the cytological features of MM in crush preparations prepared at the time of intra-op consultation and to identify the more common features which are helpful in rendering a correct diagnosis. Material and Methods: Cytological features of five cases of MM were reviewed and noted from the records. Results: There were five patients of MM with a male: female ratio of 1.5:1 and a mean age of 52 years. All tumors were supratentorial and dura-based. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2 weighted images in four cases. Cytosmears were moderate-to-highly cellular. There were variable-sized cystic spaces within the meningothelial cell clusters. In four cases, nuclear pleomorphism was frequently observed. Nuclear pseudoinclusions, atypical mitoses, vascular proliferation, and necrosis were absent in all cases. Whorling and psammoma bodies were seen in only one case. Conclusion: Cytological features identified would be helpful in the diagnosis of microcystic meningiomas, especially in unusual radiological findings. Their unusual cytological features might lead to problems in differential diagnosis from other intracranial tumors, including glioblastoma, metastatic tumor, etc.
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Clinico-cytomorphological spectrum of calcinosis cutis p. 24
Malvika Shastri, Pratibha Gautam, Preeti Diwaker, Priyanka Gogoi, Vinod K Arora
Introduction: The deposition of calcium in the skin is known as calcinosis cutis. It can affect any part of the body and can mimic soft tissue or bony lesions clinically. Aim: To describe the clinical and cytomorphologic features of calcinosis cutis on fine needle aspiration cytology smears. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 cases reported as calcinosis cutis on fine needle aspiration cytology were reviewed for the available clinical and cytological details. Results: The cohort included both adult and pediatric patients. Clinically, the lesions appeared as painless swellings of variable sizes. The common sites affected were the scrotum, iliac region, scalp, pinna, neck, axilla, elbow, arm, thigh, and gluteal region. Aspirate was chalky white, paste-like in all the cases. The cytologic evaluation revealed amorphous crystalline deposits of calcium along with histiocytes, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells. Conclusions: Calcinosis cutis has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a minimally invasive approach for diagnosing calcinosis cutis, thus eliminating the need for more extensive biopsy procedures.
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Cytological features of “Non-invasive follicular tumour with papillary like nuclear features” – A single institutional experience in India p. 28
K Amita, HB Rakshitha, M Sanjay, Prashantha Kalappa
Background: The term noninvasive follicular tumor with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was introduced as a surrogate for noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with a defined set of histopathologic criteria. There are very few studies depicting the cytological cues for the diagnosis of NIFTP. The objective of the study was to determine the spectrum of cytological features in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears of cases histopathologically diagnosed as NIFTP. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted over a duration of four years between January 2017 and December 2020. All surgically resected cases (n-21), who met the diagnostic criteria of NIFTP on histopathology and who underwent preoperative FNAC were included and reviewed in the study. Results: Out of a total of 21 cases, at FNAC, diagnosis of benign, suspicious for malignancy, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was rendered in 14 (66.6%), 2 (9.5%), 2 (9.5%), and 3 (14.28%), respectively. Scanty cellularity was noted in 12 (57.1%) cases. Papillae, sheets, and microfollicles were seen in 1 (4.7%), 10 (47.6%), and 13 (61.9%) cases, respectively. Nucleomegaly, nuclear membrane irregularities, nuclear crowding, and overlapping were seen in 7 (33.3%), 9 (42.8%), and 9 (42.8%), respectively. Nucleoli, nuclear grooving, and inclusions were seen in 3 (14.2%) 10 (47.6%), and 5 (23.8%) cases, respectively. Conclusion: At FNAC, NIFTP can be found in every category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid cytopathology (TBSRTC). Nuclear membrane irregularities, nuclear grooving, mild nuclear crowding, and overlapping were noted in a modest number of cases. However, the absence or rare occurrence of features such as papillae, inclusions, nucleoli, and metaplastic cytoplasm may help prevent an overdiagnosis of malignancy.
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Role of bronchoscopic cytology in diagnosis of pulmonary lesions p. 35
Anjali Rao Kedige, Udipi Shastri Dinesh
Objectives: Respiratory cytology specimens such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial wash (BW) obtained using a fiberoptic bronchoscope are very useful in detecting or ruling out various inflammatory conditions, infections, and neoplastic lesions. A study was carried out to determine the usefulness of respiratory cytology in the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions and the limitations of cytology if any, and correlate the results of cytology with biopsies wherever possible. Methods: All bronchoscopic cytology and biopsy specimens received at the pathology laboratory of this tertiary care institute between June 2014 and May 2017 were analyzed. Cytology smears were stained with Leishman's stain, hematoxylin and eosin (H and E), Papanicolaou (PAP), and Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) stain for all cases and special stains wherever needed. Slides prepared from biopsy specimens were stained with H and E. Immunohistochemistry was used for confirmation and further typing of malignant lesions and diagnosis rendered was compared with the corresponding cytology diagnosis. Results: A total of 120 specimens of BAL or BW cytology with or without biopsy were analyzed. Thirty-three were diagnosed as non-specific inflammatory lesions. The most common malignancy diagnosed by cytology was adenocarcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Correlating BAL with biopsy specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of BAL were 100%, 88.8%, and 91.6%, respectively. Correlating BW with biopsy specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of BW were 85.6%, 85.6%, and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusions: Accurate diagnosis can be made from the examination of bronchoscopic cytology specimens in pulmonary inflammation, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and malignancies. Combining respiratory cytology with biopsy and ancillary techniques can aid in better subtyping of neoplastic lesions.
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High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) prevalence and genotype distribution among turkish women p. 42
Melin Gecer
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the rates of distribution of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) genotypes according to cervical smear samples and biopsy results in a large sample of Turkish women. Methods: The study was conducted with 4,503 healthy volunteer women aged 19-65 years. Samples of cervical smears were collected during the examination and liquid-based cytology was used for the Pap tests. The Bethesda system was used for reporting the cytology. High-risk HPV genotypes including HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68 were investigated in samples. The study cohort was grouped according to age in decades, with comparisons made according to these age groups, Bethesda class, and cervix biopsy results. Results: Among all cases, 903 (20.1%) participants were positive for 1074 hrHPV-DNA genotypes. HPV-DNA positive cases were most common in the 30-39 age group (28.0%), followed by women under the age of 30 (38.5%). HPV genotypes were determined as, in order of frequency: Other hrHPV (n = 590, 65.3%), HPV16 (n = 127, 14.1%), Other HPV + HPV16 (n = 109, 12.1%), HPV 18 (n = 33, 3.6%), and Other HPV + HPV 18 (n = 32, 3.5%). Cervical smears were reported as ASCUS in 304 (6.8%) samples and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 12 (0.3%) of the samples. Biopsy demonstrated the presence of HSIL in 110 (12.5%) participants, with 644 (73.3%) negative cases. Conclusion: This showed an increasing incidence of Other HPVs besides the known importance of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes as risk factors for cervical cancer.
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Fine needle aspiration cytology of maxillary ameloblastoma: A cytological eye-opener p. 49
Akriti Jindal, Gargi Kapatia, Manjit K Rana, Nikhil Rajan, Utkarshni Khera
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