Journal of Cytology
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-24

Fine needle aspiration cytology of lesions of liver and gallbladder: An analysis of 400 consecutive aspirations

1 Centre for Genomics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 Department of Surgery, Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sanjiv Gupta
Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Gwalior - 474 009, Madhya Pradesh
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Source of Support: Mustafa A Barbhuiya is supported by a Senior Research Fellowship from Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. Pramod K Tiwari acknowledges fi nancial support as research grant from Madhya Pradesh Council of Science and Technology, Bhopal, MP, India., Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-9371.130634

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Background: Patients presenting with mass lesions of liver and gallbladder are a common occurrence in a cancer hospital in north central part of India. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) serves as first line of pathological investigations, but there are pros and cons involved. Aim: The main objective of the present study was to establish adequacy of the procedure and to find out diagnostic pitfalls. An attempt was made to analyze inconclusive and inadequate aspirations. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 consecutive fine-needle aspirates of liver, belonging to 328 cases over a period of 2 years, were analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin and May-Grόnwald-Giemsa stains were used. Chi-square test was carried out to compare significant degree of difference in different kind of diagnosis. Results: Out of 400 aspirations, 289 (72.2%) were adequate, 75 (18.7%), inconclusive and 36 (9%), inadequate. Among positive aspirations the most common was metastatic adenocarcinoma, 128 (44.2%). The positive diagnosis and adequate aspirations were significantly high (P < 0.0001). Major differential diagnostic problems were: Distinguishing the poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma from the metastatic adenocarcinoma; and leukemia/lymphoma from other malignant round cell tumors. Common diagnostic pitfalls were repeated aspirations from the necrotic area and aspiration of atypical, disorganized and reactive hepatocytes, adjacent to a metastasis. No complications were observed. Conclusion: FNAC can be used successfully for the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder lesions, thus avoiding open biopsy. Study indicates the potential of using FNAC in clinical intervention where the incidence of gall-bladder and liver cancer is very high and open biopsy and surgery are not an option.

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